Happy Screening from A-Z USA

Source: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2020
The following are Grade A and Grade B recommendations, meaning that all patients should be offered the following screening services as they have shown substantial and/or moderate benefit, respectively. 

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: 1-time screening with ultrasonography in men 65-75 years of age who have never smoked. 

Abnormal Blood Glucose/Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: As per cardiovascular risk assessment for adults 40-70 years of age who are overweight or obese should be screened for abnormal blood glucose. 

  • Positive cases should be referred or offered intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote healthy diet and physical activity practices. 

Aspirin Use for Prevention of CVD: low-dose aspirin use is recommended as primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer in adults 50-59 years of age who have a 10%+ 10-year CVD risk, have no increased risk of bleeding, have a life expectancy of 10 years+, and are willing to comply to daily aspirin use for at least 10 years. 

Aspirin Use for Prevention of Morbidity & Mortality from Preeclampsia: low-dose aspirin is recommended as preventative medication after 12 weeks gestation in women who are at high risk for preeclampsia. 

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: all pregnant individuals should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria using urine culture. 

BRCA-related Cancer: an appropriate brief familial risk assessment tool is recommended for use for women who have a personal or family history of breast/ovarian/tubal/peritoneal cancer or who have an ancestry associated with BRCA1/2 gene mutations. 

  • Positive cases should receive genetic counseling and genetic testing, if appropriate. 

Breast Cancer Medication Use for Prevention: risk-reduction medications such as tamoxifen, raloxifene or aromatase inhibitors are recommended to be offered to women who are at an increased risk of breast cancer. 

  • This recommendation is with the consideration that the woman is also at a low risk for adverse medication effects. 

Breast Cancer: biennial screening via mammography is recommended for all women aged 50-74 years.

Breastfeeding: recommendations and providing support to facilitate breastfeeding is appropriate during and after birth. 

Cervical Cancer: for women aged 21-29 years, screening by cytology alone is recommended every 3 years; women aged 30-65 years are recommended to be screened every 3 years by cytology alone, every 5 years by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) or every 5 year cotesting with cytology and hrHPV combined. 

Colorectal Cancer: screening is recommended to start at 50 years of age, continuing to 75 years of age. 

Dental Caries: prescription of oral fluoride supplementation is recommended for children from 6 months to 5 years of age for those whose water supply is deficient in fluoride; primary care physicians are recommended to apply fluoride varnish to primary teeth of all infants starting from age of primary tooth eruption. 

Depression: screening for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is recommended for adolescents aged 12-18 years; it is recommended to screen for depression in the general adult population, including pregnant and postpartum women. 

  • Screening should be implemented with adequate systems in place to ensure accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and appropriate follow-up. 

Fall Prevention: it is recommended to implement interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults who are 65 years+ who are at increased risk of falls. 

Folic Acid for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: all women planning or capable of pregnancy are recommended to take a daily supplement of 0.4-0.8mg of folic acid. 

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): screening for GDM in asymptomatic, pregnant women is appropriate after 24 weeks of gestation. 

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: sexually active women of 24 years of age or younger, as well as old women with increased risk of infection are recommended for screening for both chlamydia and gonorrhea infections. 

Healthful Diet & Physical Activity for CVD Prevention: for adults who are overweight or obese, with additional CVD risk factors are recommended to partake in intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote healthier diet and physical activity in their daily routine. 

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection: screening is recommended for adults at high risk for infection; screening is recommended and appropriate at the first prenatal visit for all pregnant women. 

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection: screening is recommended for adults aged 18-79 years of age. 

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: screening is recommended for all adolescents and adults aged 15-65 years; younger adolescents and older adults with increased risk of infection are recommended for screening; screening for all pregnant persons is appropriate, including those who present in labor/delivery with unknown HIV status. 

Blood Pressure: screening recommended in adults aged 18 years+. 

  • Measurements of high blood pressure outside of a clinical setting is recommended for diagnostic confirmation prior to starting medical treatment. 

Intimate Partner Violence, Elder Abuse and Abuse of Vulnerable Adults: screening is recommended for women of reproductive age. 

  • Positive cases are to be referred to ongoing support services. 

Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI): screening is recommended in populations at increased risk. 

Lung Cancer: annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is recommended in adults aged 55-80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. 

  • Screening should be discontinued once person has not smoked for 15 years or has developed a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy/ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery. 

Obesity: screening for obesity in children and adolescents 6 years and older is recommended and to be referred to comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions to promote improvements in weight. 

Ocular Prophylaxis for Gonococcal Ophthalmia Neonatorum: prophylactic ocular topical medication is recommended for all newborns. 

Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: screening for osteoporosis and bone measurement testing to prevent fractures is recommended in postmenopausal women younger than 65 years of age who are at increased risk of osteoporosis (determined by formal clinical risk assessment tool); screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing is recommended to prevent osteoporotic fractures for women 65 years+. 

Perinatal Depression: pregnant and postpartum persons who are at increased risk of perinatal depression are recommended for referral to counseling interventions. 

Preeclampsia: screening is recommended for pregnant women by frequent, consistent blood pressure measurements throughout pregnancy. 

Prevention of HIV Infection, Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): PrEP is recommended to be offered with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons who are at high risk of HIV acquisition. 

Rh(D) Incompatibility: Rh(D) antibody testing for all unsensitized Rh(D)-negative women at 24-28 weeks gestation is recommended unless the biological father is known negative; Rh(D) blood typing and antibody testing for all pregnant women during their first visit for pregnancy-related care is recommended. 

Sexually Transmitted Infection Behavioral Counseling: behavioral counseling is recommended for all sexually active adolescents and for adults who are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). 

Skin Cancer Prevention, Behavioral Counseling: counseling for young adults, adolescents, children and parents of young children about minimizing exposure to UV radiation for persons 6 months - 24 years of age with fair skin types is recommended. 

Statin Use for Primary Prevention of CVD: adults without a history of CVD, use of low to moderate-dose statin for prevention of CVD events and mortality when all of the following criteria are met: they are 40-75 years old, they have 1 or more CVD risk factor (dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension or smoking) and they have a calculate 10-year risk of CVD event of 10%+.

  • Universal lipid screening is required for adults of 40-75 years of age. 

Syphilis Infection: screening is recommended in all persons who are at increased risk for infection; early syphilis screening is all pregnant women is appropriate. 

Tobacco Smoking Cessation: primary care clinicians are recommended to provide interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent initiation of tobacco use among school-aged children and adolescents; it is recommended to ask all pregnant women about tobacco use, advise them to stop using and provide behavioral interventions for cessation where appropriate; it is recommended to ask all adults about tobacco use, advise them to stop using and provide behavioral interventions for cessation where appropriate in addition to FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. 

Unhealthy Alcohol Use: it is recommended to screen for unhealthy alcohol use in primary care settings in adults 18 years or older, including pregnant women and providing those engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce use. 

Unhealthy Drug Use: screening by asking questions about unhealthy drug use in adults 18 years or older is recommended and should be implemented when services for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment and appropriate care can be offered or referred. 

Vision: vision screening is recommended at least once in all children aged 3-5 years of age to detect amblyopia or risk factors. 

Weight Loss to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity & Mortality: it is recommended for clinicians to offer or refer adults with a BMI of 30 or higher to intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions.